Revitalizing the East African Community Treaty: A Necessary Review

By t.j


The East African Community (EAC) Treaty, inked in 1999, has served as a fundamental pillar in propelling regional integration among its East African member states.

However, in the face of evolving dynamics within the East African region, a comprehensive review of the EAC Treaty has become an urgent imperative. William Ruto, the President of Kenya, has recently made such observations, calling for the review of the treaty. Such a review will enable the identification of critical areas necessitating attention, reforms, and amendments to ensure the treaty’s continued relevance, effectiveness, and alignment with the region’s contemporary imperatives.

This blog post delves into specific provisions that demand scrutiny and presents comprehensive recommendations to invigorate regional integration and foster sustainable development within the EAC.

Political Integration (Article 5):

The ambition to establish a political federation among EAC member states has been impeded by sluggish progress. To rebirth political integration aspirations, a thorough review of Article 5 is necessary. This scrutiny must focus on fortifying the institutional framework for political consolidation, refining decision-making processes, and fostering effective coordination among member states. Moreover, robust mechanisms for dispute resolution and enhanced accountability are essential to foster trust and confidence among member states. A resolute pursuit of these measures would set the stage for substantial strides in achieving political integration.

Economic Integration (Article 6):

Despite notable strides towards economic integration, substantial challenges persist within the EAC. A meticulous review of Article 6 is indispensable to deepen economic integration and dismantle trade barriers. The onus lies on prioritizing the harmonization of trade policies, dismantling non-tariff barriers, standardizing regulations, and augmenting infrastructure connectivity. Furthermore, concerted efforts must be made to foster investment, facilitate cross-border trade, and seamlessly facilitate the movement of goods, services, and capital within the EAC. By forging a more integrated economic landscape, the EAC can bolster trade flows, spur economic growth, and amplify opportunities for member states.

Free Movement of People (Articles 12, 13, 14):

Despite upholding the principle of free movement of people, impediments continue to undermine its effective implementation. A comprehensive review of Articles 12, 13, and 14 is pivotal to surmount these challenges. Streamlining procedures for work permit issuance, standardizing the recognition of academic and professional qualifications, and promoting labor mobility are critical objectives. Establishing a regional framework for mutual qualification recognition, coupled with harmonized work permit regulations, will facilitate the seamless integration of skilled professionals and unleash the potential of cross-border labor mobility. By bolstering the free movement of people, the EAC can harness talent and skills, foster regional collaboration, and stimulate economic growth.

Institutional Framework (Articles 9, 20, 23):

The EAC Treaty lays the foundation for various institutions responsible for its implementation, such as the EAC Secretariat, the East African Legislative Assembly, and the East African Court of Justice. A comprehensive review of Articles 9, 20, and 23 is imperative to strengthen the EAC’s institutional framework. Addressing challenges associated with overlapping mandates, limited resources, and inter-institutional coordination is paramount. By fortifying the institutional framework, the EAC can enhance efficiency, accountability, and coordination in implementing its policies and programs. Robust institutions will enable effective regional problem-solving and promote seamless collaboration among member states.

Resource Mobilization (Article 52):

Ensuring the EAC’s financial sustainability is crucial for its long-term success. A comprehensive review of Article 52 should be undertaken to diversify and enhance domestic resource mobilization. Exploring innovative financing mechanisms, such as public-private partnerships, regional taxation systems, and increased member state contributions, is essential. By strengthening financial mechanisms, the EAC can reduce dependence on donor funding and ensure the sustainability of its programs and initiatives. This will grant the EAC greater autonomy in pursuing its development agenda and cement its role as a driving force in the region.

Environmental Sustainability (Articles 118, 119):

Recognizing the significance of environmental sustainability, the EAC Treaty incorporates provisions aimed at promoting sustainable development. However, a comprehensive review of Articles 118 and 119 is indispensable to fortify these provisions. Emphasizing the integration of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies, fostering sustainable land use practices, and establishing robust environmental monitoring and enforcement mechanisms are key imperatives. By prioritizing environmental governance within the EAC, the region can contribute significantly to natural resource conservation, climate change mitigation, and the promotion of sustainable development practices.


A comprehensive review of the EAC Treaty stands as an imperative to ensure its continued success and relevance in driving regional integration. By addressing provisions pertaining to political integration, economic integration, free movement of people, institutional framework, resource mobilization, and environmental sustainability, the EAC can foster deeper regional integration, sustainable development, and prosperity for member states. By fostering collaboration, effective implementation, and an unwavering commitment to ongoing review and reform, the EAC can bolster its foundations and emerge as a shining example of regional integration on the African continent and beyond.

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